12.1: Austin Osman Spare

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Austin Osman Spare is widely regarded as the spiritual progenitor of chaos magic. He was a modernist artist from the first decades of the twentieth century and a man ahead of his time in many ways. His art, drawing on automatic writing and drawing, predated surrealism by more than a decade and his occult practice–involving sigils and masturbation–inspired a movement that wouldn’t coalesce until the 1970s.