Paschal Beverly Randolph was a pioneer of American occultism. He began his career as a medium before branching out with his own occult philosophy involving Rosicrucianism and sex magic. The African American Randolph studied medicine and was also involved in efforts to educate recently liberated slaves in the southern United States. Randolph expressed his technique and ideology in fictional novels as well as non-fiction manuals. A tragic figure, he died young, shot in the head in an apparent suicide.